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|Development of Profile of Toxic Waste Products in Nepal
|Introduction: Toxic wastes are produced by various activities and phenomena particularly in the industrial/commercial sector and the inventory/profile development of toxic wastes can be taken as an essential step towards reduction and eventual elimination of such releases in to various environmental compartments. But development of such profiles at national/regional levels is a meticulous task requiring diligent efforts and the knowledge on various processes involved, to work out quantitative expressions of different releases. Study objectives/scope of study To document and finalize a step-wise procedure to assess profile of toxic waste products of different origins in Nepalese context and to field apply the finalized procedure to develop a profile of toxic waste products Main Elements in Step-wise Profile Development Procedure A protocol of inventory assembly has been provided (UNEP toolkit), applicable for dioxin quantification in particular, in waste releases. The main elements included Identification of source categories producing toxic wastes, Quantification of toxic waste releases in each source category, Assessing activity rates (or waste releases) regional/national and Development of profile of the toxic waste products in Nepal or the district. Methodology: Profile development of the toxic waste products has been attempted by the use of data/information gathered from the secondary sources as well as by the use of data/information obtained from questionnaire survey works. Compilation and Classification of data/information obtained from field visits The data/information obtained from the field visits have been classified district-wise and by the industry types. The data relevant to profile/inventory development have been put in to appropriate columns: name of the industry/establishment; general outline of the manufacturing processes; the type of products/annual production; inputs: raw materials, chemicals. Fuels etc.; waste streams: emission to air, solids (residues, ash, sludge); wastewater; remarks (annual working days, pollution control measures, waste treatments etc). Finalization of Profile Development of Toxic Waste Products in Nepal In finalizing the profiles of toxic waste products, efforts have been made to integrate data/information obtained from primary sources (questionnaire survey results) with data from secondary sources (literature survey). Toxic waste profiles both at national and district levels (5 districts) have been developed from available data, Conclusions : It should be borne in mind that because of the data gaps encountered at almost every stage of the step-wise procedures followed during this profile development (stated elsewhere in this report), the quantities of waste releases for toxic waste products calculated and presented at national and district levels, can only be considered as indicative of the states of environmental pollution under the prevailing conditions. Keywords: district; national; profile development; quantity; toxic wastes.
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